Git --distributed-is-the-new-centralized
Topics ▾ Version 2.0.3 ▾ git-commit-tree last updated in 2.0.3


git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object


'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
		  [(-F <file>)...] <tree>


This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See linkgit:git-commit[1] instead.

Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits have no parents.

While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how to get there.

Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.



An existing tree object

-p <parent>

Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

-m <message>

A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

-F <file>

Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read from the standard input.


GPG-sign commit.


Countermand commit.gpgsign configuration variable that is set to force each and every commit to be signed.

Commit Information

A commit encapsulates:

  • all parent object ids

  • author name, email and date

  • committer name and email and the commit time.

While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and committer information is taken from the following environment variables, if set:


(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)

In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information is taken from the configuration items and, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when that file does not exist).

A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.







Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite