Git --distributed-is-the-new-centralized
Topics ▾ Version 1.7.12.2 ▾ git-rev-list last updated in 2.1.2

SYNOPSIS

git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
[ --skip=<number> ]
[ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --sparse ]
[ --merges ]
[ --no-merges ]
[ --min-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-min-parents ]
[ --max-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-max-parents ]
[ --first-parent ]
[ --remove-empty ]
[ --full-history ]
[ --not ]
[ --all ]
[ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
[ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
[ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
[ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
[ --ignore-missing ]
[ --stdin ]
[ --quiet ]
[ --topo-order ]
[ --parents ]
[ --timestamp ]
[ --left-right ]
[ --left-only ]
[ --right-only ]
[ --cherry-mark ]
[ --cherry-pick ]
[ --encoding[=<encoding>] ]
[ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
[ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ --extended-regexp | -E ]
[ --fixed-strings | -F ]
[ --date=(local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short) ]
[ [--objects | --objects-edge] [ --unpacked ] ]
[ --pretty | --header ]
[ --bisect ]
[ --bisect-vars ]
[ --bisect-all ]
[ --merge ]
[ --reverse ]
[ --walk-reflogs ]
[ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
<commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]

DESCRIPTION

List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse chronological order by default.

You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command line form a set of commits that are reachable from any of them, and then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the command's output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further limit the result.

Thus, the following command:

	$ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not from baz".

A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used interchangeably:

	$ git rev-list origin..HEAD
	$ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

	$ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
	$ git rev-list A...B

rev-list is a very essential git command, since it provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS

Commit Limiting

Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g. --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as --reverse.

-<number>
-n <number>
--max-count=<number>

Limit the number of commits to output.

--skip=<number>

Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

--since=<date>
--after=<date>

Show commits more recent than a specific date.

--until=<date>
--before=<date>

Show commits older than a specific date.

--max-age=<timestamp>
--min-age=<timestamp>

Limit the commits output to specified time range.

--author=<pattern>
--committer=<pattern>

Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple --committer=<pattern>).

--grep=<pattern>

Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

--all-match

Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead of ones that match at least one.

-i
--regexp-ignore-case

Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

-E
--extended-regexp

Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

-F
--fixed-strings

Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret pattern as a regular expression).

--remove-empty

Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

--merges

Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

--no-merges

Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

--min-parents=<number>
--max-parents=<number>
--no-min-parents
--no-max-parents

Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges. --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

--no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper limit).

--first-parent

Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

--not

Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

--all

Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--branches[=<pattern>]

Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--tags[=<pattern>]

Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--remotes[=<pattern>]

Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--glob=<glob-pattern>

Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--ignore-missing

Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not given.

--stdin

In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

--quiet

Don't print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.

--cherry-mark

Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

--cherry-pick

Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description of the --left-right option). It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

--left-only
--right-only

List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e. only those which would be marked < resp. > by --left-right.

For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact list.

--cherry

A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

-g
--walk-reflogs

Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor commit1\...commit2 notations cannot be used).

With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now}, output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

--merge

After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.

--boundary

Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not shown.

History Simplification

Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

The following options select the commits to be shown:

<paths>

Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

--simplify-by-decoration

Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

Default mode

Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same content)

--full-history

Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

--dense

Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

--sparse

All commits in the simplified history are shown.

--simplify-merges

Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

--ancestry-path

When given a range of commits to display (e.g. commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

A more detailed explanation follows.

Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume

that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

	  .-A---M---N---O---P
	 /     /   /   /   /
	I     B   C   D   E
	 \   /   /   /   /
	  `-------------'
The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the first parent of
each merge.  The commits are:

* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
  "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux".  Initial
  commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.

* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".

* `B` contains the same change as `A`.  Its merge `M` is trivial and
  hence TREESAME to all parents.

* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
  so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

* `D` sets `foo` to "baz".  Its merge `O` combines the strings from
  `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
  strings to "quux xyzzy".  Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
  TREESAME to all parents.

'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used.  The following settings
are available.

Default mode::

	Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
	(though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).  If the
	commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
	only that parent.  (Even if there are several TREESAME
	parents, follow only one of them.)  Otherwise, follow all
	parents.
+
This results in:
+
	  .-A---N---O
	 /     /   /
	I---------D
+
Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
available, removed `B` from consideration entirely.  `C` was
considered via `N`, but is TREESAME.  Root commits are compared to an
empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
+
Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
parent lines.

--full-history without parent rewriting::

	This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
	all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
	Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
	included, this does not imply that the merge itself is!  In
	the example, we get
+
	I  A  B  N  D  O
+
`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent.  `E`,
`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
do not appear.
+
Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
them disconnected.

--full-history with parent rewriting::

	Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
	(though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
+
Merges are always included.  However, their parent list is rewritten:
Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
themselves.  This results in
+
	  .-A---M---N---O---P
	 /     /   /   /   /
	I     B   /   D   /
	 \   /   /   /   /
	  `-------------'
+
Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above.  Note that `E`
was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`.  The same happened for `C` and
`N`.  Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.

In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
affects inclusion:

--dense::

	Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
	to any parent.

--sparse::

	All commits that are walked are included.
+
Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
sides of the merge are never walked.

--simplify-merges::

	First, build a history graph in the same way that
	'\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
+
Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
history according to the following rules:
+
--
* Set `C'` to `C`.
+
* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`.  In
  the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
  remove duplicates.
+
* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
  zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
  Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
--
+
The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
'\--full-history' with parent rewriting.  The example turns into:
+
	  .-A---M---N---O
	 /     /       /
	I     B       D
	 \   /       /
	  `---------'
+
Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '--full-history':
+
--
* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
  other parent `M`.  Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
+
* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed.  `P` was then
  removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
--

Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

--ancestry-path::

	Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
	chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
	range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
	commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
+
As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
+
	    D---E-------F
	   /     \       \
	  B---C---G---H---I---J
	 /                     \
	A-------K---------------L--M
+
A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
of course).
+
When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '--ancestry-path'
option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
+
		E-------F
		 \       \
		  G---H---I---J
			       \
				L--M

The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
that are not referenced by tags.  Commits are marked as !TREESAME
(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
contents of the paths given on the command line.  All other
commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

Bisection Helpers
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

--bisect::

Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if

	$ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands

	$ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
	$ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

would be of roughly the same length.  Finding the change which
introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
one.

--bisect-vars::

This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
`bisect_all`.

--bisect-all::

This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
`--bisect`.)
+
This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
may not compile for example).
+
This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.


Commit Ordering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

--date-order::
	Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
	otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.

--topo-order::
	Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
	avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
	intermixed.
+
For example, in a commit history like this:
+
    ---1----2----4----7
	\	       \
	 3----5----6----8---
+
where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
+
With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
together.

--reverse::

	Output the commits in reverse order.
	Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.

Object Traversal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.

--objects::

	Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
	commits.  '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
	all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
	object 'bar', but not 'foo'".

--objects-edge::

	Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
	commits prefixed with a "-" character.  This is used by
	linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
	objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
	excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

--unpacked::

	Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
	in packs.

--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::

	Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
	This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
	"unsorted" is given, the commits are show in the order they were
	given on the command line. Otherwise (if "sorted" or no argument
	was given), the commits are show in reverse chronological order
	by commit time.

--do-walk::

	Overrides a previous --no-walk.

Commit Formatting
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]

--pretty[=<format>]::
--format=<format>::

	Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
	where '<format>' can be one of 'oneline', 'short', 'medium',
	'full', 'fuller', 'email', 'raw' and 'format:<string>'.  See
	the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
	format.  When omitted, the format defaults to 'medium'.
+
Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
configuration (see linkgit:git-config[1]).

--abbrev-commit::
	Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
	name, show only a partial prefix.  Non default number of
	digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies
	diff output, if it is displayed).
+
This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
people using 80-column terminals.

--no-abbrev-commit::
	Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
	`--abbrev-commit` and those options which imply it such as
	"--oneline". It also overrides the 'log.abbrevCommit' variable.

--oneline::
	This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
	used together.

--encoding[=<encoding>]::
	The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
	in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
	command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
	preferred by the user.  For non plumbing commands this
	defaults to UTF-8.

--notes[=<ref>]::
	Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
	commit, when showing the commit log message.  This is the default
	for `git log`, `git show` and `git whatchanged` commands when
	there is no `--pretty`, `--format` nor `--oneline` option given
	on the command line.
+
By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
'core.notesRef' and 'notes.displayRef' variables (or corresponding
environment overrides). See linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
+
With an optional '<ref>' argument, show this notes ref instead of the
default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to be in `refs/notes/` if it
is not qualified.
+
Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
"refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
"refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

--no-notes::
	Do not show notes. This negates the above `--notes` option, by
	resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
	Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
	"--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
	from "refs/notes/bar".

--show-notes[=<ref>]::
--[no-]standard-notes::
	These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
	options instead.

--show-signature::
	Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
	to `gpg --verify` and show the output.
--relative-date::

	Synonym for `--date=relative`.

--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::

	Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
	as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
	value for log command's --date option.
+
`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
e.g. "2 hours ago".
+
`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
+
`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
+
`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
format, often found in E-mail messages.
+
`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
+
`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
+
`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
(either committer's or author's).

--header::

	Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
	separated with a NUL character.

--parents::

	Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
	Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.

--children::

	Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
	Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.

--timestamp::
	Print the raw commit timestamp.

--left-right::

	Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
	Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
	the right with `>`.  If combined with `--boundary`, those
	commits are prefixed with `-`.
+
For example, if you have this topology:
+
	     y---b---b  branch B
	    / \ /
	   /   .
	  /   / \
	 o---x---a---a  branch A
+
you would get an output like this:
+
	$ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
	>bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
	>bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
	<aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
	<aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
	-yyyyyyy... 1st on b
	-xxxxxxx... 1st on a

--graph::

	Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
	on the left hand side of the output.  This may cause extra lines
	to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
	to be drawn properly.
+
This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+
This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
'--date-order' option may also be specified.

--count::
	Print a number stating how many commits would have been
	listed, and suppress all other output.  When used together
	with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
	right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
	'--cherry-mark', omit patch equivalent commits from these
	counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
	by a tab.


PRETTY FORMATS

If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a certain directory or file.

There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

  • oneline

    	  <sha1> <title line>
    

    This is designed to be as compact as possible.

  • short

    	  commit <sha1>
    	  Author: <author>
    
    	      <title line>
    

  • medium

    	  commit <sha1>
    	  Author: <author>
    	  Date:   <author date>
    
    	      <title line>
    
    	      <full commit message>
    

  • full

    	  commit <sha1>
    	  Author: <author>
    	  Commit: <committer>
    
    	      <title line>
    
    	      <full commit message>
    

  • fuller

    	  commit <sha1>
    	  Author:     <author>
    	  AuthorDate: <author date>
    	  Commit:     <committer>
    	  CommitDate: <committer date>
    
    	       <title line>
    
    	       <full commit message>
    

  • email

    	  From <sha1> <date>
    	  From: <author>
    	  Date: <author date>
    	  Subject: [PATCH] <title line>
    
    	  <full commit message>
    

  • raw

    The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

  • format:<string>

    The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

    E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

    The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
    The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
    
    

    The placeholders are:

  • %H: commit hash

  • %h: abbreviated commit hash

  • %T: tree hash

  • %t: abbreviated tree hash

  • %P: parent hashes

  • %p: abbreviated parent hashes

  • %an: author name

  • %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %ae: author email

  • %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

  • %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

  • %ar: author date, relative

  • %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

  • %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

  • %cn: committer name

  • %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %ce: committer email

  • %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %cd: committer date

  • %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

  • %cr: committer date, relative

  • %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

  • %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

  • %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

  • %e: encoding

  • %s: subject

  • %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

  • %b: body

  • %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

  • %N: commit notes

  • %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

  • %G?: show either "G" for Good or "B" for Bad for a signed commit

  • %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

  • %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

  • %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

  • %gn: reflog identity name

  • %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %ge: reflog identity email

  • %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

  • %gs: reflog subject

  • %Cred: switch color to red

  • %Cgreen: switch color to green

  • %Cblue: switch color to blue

  • %Creset: reset color

  • %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option

  • %m: left, right or boundary mark

  • %n: newline

  • %%: a raw %

  • %x00: print a byte from a hex code

  • %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

Note
Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

If you add a (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

  • tformat:

    The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For example:

    $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
      | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
    4da45be
    7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
    
    $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
      | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
    4da45be
    7134973
    

    In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

    $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
    $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef
    

GIT

Part of the git(1) suite