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git-update-ref(1) Manual Page
git-update-ref - update the object name stored in a ref safely
git-update-ref <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>]
Given two arguments, stores the <newvalue> in the <ref>, possibly dereferencing the symbolic refs. E.g. git-update-ref HEAD <newvalue> updates the current branch head to the new object.
Given three arguments, stores the <newvalue> in the <ref>, possibly dereferencing the symbolic refs, after verifying that the current value of the <ref> matches <oldvalue>. E.g. git-update-ref refs/heads/master <newvalue> <oldvalue> updates the master branch head to <newvalue> only if its current value is <oldvalue>.
It also allows a "ref" file to be a symbolic pointer to another ref file by starting with the four-byte header sequence of "ref:".
More importantly, it allows the update of a ref file to follow these symbolic pointers, whether they are symlinks or these "regular file symbolic refs". It follows real symlinks only if they start with "refs/": otherwise it will just try to read them and update them as a regular file (i.e. it will allow the filesystem to follow them, but will overwrite such a symlink to somewhere else with a regular filename).
In general, using
git-update-ref HEAD "$head"
should be a lot safer than doing
echo "$head" > "$GIT_DIR/HEAD"
both from a symlink following standpoint and an error checking standpoint. The "refs/" rule for symlinks means that symlinks that point to "outside" the tree are safe: they'll be followed for reading but not for writing (so we'll never write through a ref symlink to some other tree, if you have copied a whole archive by creating a symlink tree).
Written by Linus Torvalds <email@example.com>.
Part of the git7 suite