2. Git Basics
7. Git Tools
10. Git Internals
4.6 Git on the Server - Smart HTTP
We now have authenticated access though SSH and unauthenticated access through
git://, but there is also a protocol that can do both at the same time.
Setting up Smart HTTP is basically just enabling a CGI script that is provided with Git called
git-http-backend on the server.git commands, "http-backend"
This CGI will read the path and headers sent by a
git fetch or
git push to an HTTP URL and determine if the client can communicate over HTTP (which is true for any client since version 1.6.6).
If the CGI sees that the client is smart, it will communicate smartly with it, otherwise it will fall back to the dumb behavior (so it is backward compatible for reads with older clients).
Let’s walk though a very basic setup. We’ll set this up with Apache as the CGI server. If you don’t have Apache setup, you can do so on a Linux box with something like this:
$ sudo apt-get install apache2 apache2-utils $ a2enmod cgi alias env
This also enables the
mod_env modules, which are all needed for this to work properly.
Next we need to add some things to the Apache configuration to run the
git http-backend as the handler for anything coming into the
/git path of your web server.
SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /opt/git SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
If you leave out
GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environment variable, then Git will only serve to unauthenticated clients the repositories with the
git-daemon-export-ok file in them, just like the Git daemon did.
Then you’ll have to tell Apache to allow requests to that path with something like this:
<Directory "/usr/lib/git-core*"> Options ExecCGI Indexes Order allow,deny Allow from all Require all granted </Directory>
Finally you’ll want to make writes be authenticated somehow, possibly with an Auth block like this:
<LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$"> AuthType Basic AuthName "Git Access" AuthUserFile /opt/git/.htpasswd Require valid-user </LocationMatch>
That will require you to create a
.htaccess file containing the passwords of all the valid users. Here is an example of adding a “schacon” user to the file:
$ htdigest -c /opt/git/.htpasswd "Git Access" schacon
There are tons of ways to have Apache authenticate users, you’ll have to choose and implement one of them. This is just the simplest example we could come up with. You’ll also almost certainly want to set this up over SSL so all this data is encrypted.
We don’t want to go too far down the rabbit hole of Apache configuration specifics, since you could well be using a different server or have different authenication needs. The idea is that Git comes with a CGI called
git http-backend that when invoked will do all the negotiation to send and receive data over HTTP. It does not implement any authentication itself, but that can easily be controlled at the layer of the web server that invokes it. You can do this with nearly any CGI-capable web server, so go with the one that you know best.
For more information on configuring authentication in Apache, check out the Apache docs here: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/howto/auth.html