2. Git Basics
7. Git Tools
10. Git Internals
A3. Git Commands
1.6 Getting Started - First-Time Git Setup
First-Time Git Setup
Now that you have Git on your system, you’ll want to do a few things to customize your Git environment. You should have to do these things only once on any given computer; they’ll stick around between upgrades. You can also change them at any time by running through the commands again.
Git comes with a tool called
git config that lets you get and set configuration variables that control all aspects of how Git looks and operates.
These variables can be stored in three different places:
/etc/gitconfigfile: Contains values for every user on the system and all their repositories. If you pass the option
git config, it reads and writes from this file specifically.
~/.config/git/configfile: Specific to your user. You can make Git read and write to this file specifically by passing the
configfile in the Git directory (that is,
.git/config) of whatever repository you’re currently using: Specific to that single repository.
Each level overrides values in the previous level, so values in
.git/config trump those in
On Windows systems, Git looks for the
.gitconfig file in the
$HOME directory (
C:\Users\$USER for most people).
It also still looks for
/etc/gitconfig, although it’s relative to the MSys root, which is wherever you decide to install Git on your Windows system when you run the installer.
However, if you are using Git for Windows 2.x, it is
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Git\config on Windows XP, and it is
C:\ProgramData\Git\config on Windows Vista and newer.
The first thing you should do when you install Git is to set your user name and email address. This is important because every Git commit uses this information, and it’s immutably baked into the commits you start creating:
$git config --global user.name
$git config --global user.email email@example.com
Again, you need to do this only once if you pass the
--global option, because then Git will always use that information for anything you do on that system.
If you want to override this with a different name or email address for specific projects, you can run the command without the
--global option when you’re in that project.
Many of the GUI tools will help you do this when you first run them.
Now that your identity is set up, you can configure the default text editor that will be used when Git needs you to type in a message. If not configured, Git uses your system’s default editor, which is generally Vim. If you want to use a different text editor, such as Emacs, you can do the following:
$git config --global core.editor emacs
Vim and Emacs are popular text editors often used by developers on Unix based systems like Linux and Mac. If you are not familiar with either of these editors or are on a Windows system, you may need to search for instructions for how to set up your favorite editor with Git. If you don’t set an editor like this and you don’t know what Vim or Emacs are, you will likely get into a really confusing state when they are launched.
If you want to check your settings, you can use the
git config --list command to list all the settings Git can find at that point:
$git config --list
You may see keys more than once, because Git reads the same key from different files (
~/.gitconfig, for example).
In this case, Git uses the last value for each unique key it sees.
$git config user.name